The cheapest and most environmentally friendly way to transport oil is oil pipelines. The oil in them moves at a speed of up to 3 m / s under the influence of the difference in pressure created by pumping stations. They are installed at intervals of 70-150 kilometers, depending on the terrain of the route. At a distance of 10-30 kilometers in the pipelines place the valves, allowing to block certain sections in an accident. The internal diameter of pipes, as a rule, ranges from 100 to 1400 millimeters. The pipes are made of highly plastic steels capable of withstanding thermal, mechanical and chemical influences. Reinforced plastic pipelines are becoming increasingly popular. They are not subject to corrosion and have almost unlimited service life.
Product pipelines ship gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel from the refinery to local distribution facilities. Crude oil is collected from field gathering systems consisting of pipelines that move oil from the wellhead to storage tanks and treatment facilities where the oil is measured and tested.
From the gathering system the crude oil is sent to a pump station where the oil delivered to the pipeline. Booster pumps are located along the pipeline to maintain the pressure and keep the oil flowing. Pipelines require significantly less energy to operate than operating trucks or rail and have a much lower carbon footprint. More importantly, pipeline has proved to result in fewer fatalities, injuries, and environmental damage than other options.
Today, the priority task of LLC "PBK Terminal” is to further reduce the specific accident rate. The basis for the development of anti-corrosion measures included in the overall strategy is monitoring (corrosion activity of pumped media, corrosion rates) and the results of industrial safety expertise of the studied pipeline fleet. Based on these data, an assessment of options for the further operation of pipeline systems is made. Specialists of the company will continue to work in the future aimed at improving the reliability of the fleet of pipelines of LLC "PBK Terminal” and reducing operating costs.
The composition of the structures of the main pipeline
Before us is the scheme of the main oil pipeline, including the linear part, the main and intermediate pumping stations, and end points. The linear part of the pipeline is usually welded from steel pipes with a diameter of 250 to 1220 mm . The diameter of the pipeline is chosen depending on the amount of product being pumped and the distance between stations.
The depth of the pipeline is determined on the basis of climatic and geographical conditions. It must be at least 0.8 m , counting from the upper edge of the pipe. The valves installed on the linear part are used to shut off the pipeline in case of accidents or repairs.
The main purpose of the cathodic protection station and protectors is to protect the pipeline from corrosion. Cathodic protection stations are located on the highway every 8-15 km. They allow using an external DC source to impose a negative potential on the ground to the pipeline. The negative pole of the energy source is connected to the pipe, and the positive pole is connected to the anode earthing.